April 2000. Pheromone versus ethyl chrysanthemuate:
Details of the pheromone are publiched in Hallet et al. (1995) Journal of Chemical Ecology 21: 1549 (1995). Tests using the pheromone versus ethyl chrysanthemuate showed that (in vaned bucket traps described in the paper) pheromone baited traps captured at least 10 times more Oryctes rhinoceros per trap than ethyl chrysanthemuate baited traps.
Use of pheromone traps to manage population of Oryctes rhinoceros:
Pheromone trapping of Rhinoceros beetles using pheromone lures has been used in Malaysia since 1995. Most of the work on management by pheromone trapping has been published in PORIM and MAPPS proceedings. Operational trapping manages all but the highest populations of Oryctes rhinoceros in commercial oil palm and uses 1 trap/2 ha. Traps consist of crossed vanes on buckets - the vanes must protrude to within a few inches of the bottom of the bucket to prevent escape of the beetles. Using this trap no killing agent is required - only a pheromone lure. In young oil palm, traps are hung from sticks above the canopy of the crop. Commercial lures available from Sime Darby of Malaysia last about 10 weeks and are the lures used in all the studies listed below.
For a study of the use of pheromone trapping to manage populations of Oryctes rhinoceros in young oil palm see Chung Gait Fee (1998) The bioefficiency of the aggregation pheromone in mass trapping of Rhinoceros beetles (Oryctes rhinoceros) in Malaysia. Proceedings of Malaysian Plant Protection Society.
For a study of the use of pheromone trapping combined with baculovirus treatment for management of Oryctes rhinoceros in young oil palm See CT Ho (1996) Integrated management of Oryctes rhinoceros populations in the Zero Burning Environment. Proceedings of PORIM Conference: 336-368.
For a study of the use of pheromone traps to study population of Oryctes rhinoceros in young oil palm see Norman Hy Damarudin (1999) Population studies of Oryctes rhinoceros in an oil palm replant using pheromone traps. Proceedings of PORIM Conference 1-6 February 2000. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: paper A-35.
For a study of the use of cypermethrin in young oil palm to control Oryctes rhinoceros and a comparison of cost of pheromone trapping with cypermethrin treatment see: Chung Gait Fee et al. (1999) Effect of pest damage during Immature phase on the early yields of oil palm. Proceedings of PORIM Conference 1-6 February 2000. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: paper A-37.
Sources of pheromone:
1) Plant Research, International, Wageningen, the Netherlands
2) Ethyl-4 methyloctanoate, manufactured in France
3) Slow-release formulation of the pheromone from plastic bags: Oryctalure - ChemTica International;
Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle Attract and Kill Dispensers.