April 2000. From time to time, perhaps once or twice a decade, populations of the fruit piercing moth, Eudicima (Othreis) fullonia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), reach outbreak levels and destroy most of the fruit crops in Samoa. Biological control agents keep the moth population under control in most years, but it is suggested that fluctuations in the climate contribute to a disturbance in the ecosystem resulting in these periodic outbreaks.
In order to overcome the outbreaks, a member asked how to mass rear the native Trichogramma species using artificial diets for inundative releases of this parasitoid at these times.
The following references were provided, with the caveat that establishment of alternative hosts would be better than inundative releases.
GRENIER S, BONNOT G (1988) Development of Trichogramma dendrolimi and T maidis (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) in artificial media and artificial host eggs. In: VOEGELÉ J, WAAGE JK, LENTEREN VAN JC (Eds.) Trichogramma and other egg parasites. Les Colloques de l`INRA 43: 319-326.
LI LY, LIU WH, CHEN CS, HAN SC, SHIN JC, DU HS, FENG SY (1988) In vitro rearing of Trichogrmma spp. and Anastus sp. in artificial eggs and the methods of mass production. In: VOEGELÉ J, WAAGE JK, LENTEREN VAN JC (Eds.) Trichogramma and other egg parasites. Les Colloques de l`INRA 43: 339-352.
LIU WH, WU ZX (1982) Recent results in rearing Trichogramma in vitro with artificial media devoid of insectan additives. Acta Entomol. Sinica 6: 17-25.
GRENIER S (1994) Rearing Trichogramma and other egg parasitoids on artificial diets. In: WAJNBERG E, HASSAN SA (Eds.) (1994) Biological control with egg parasi-toids. Cab Int. Oxon, UK: 73-92.
CARPENTER JE, GREANY PD (1998) Comparative development and performance of artificially reared versus host-reared Diapetimorpha introita (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) wasps. Biological Control 11: 203-208.