Pests > Pest Management > Quarantine > Import risk assessments > Pest introductions, references & records, Vanuatu

Pests > Pest Management > Quarantine > Import risk assessments > Pest introductions, references & records, Vanuatu

Pests Pest Management Quarantine Import risk assessments Pest introductions, references & records, Vanuatu

Invasive pests: Vanuatu

June 2001. Vanuatu announced that it was undertaking a study on pests that had invaded the country, in order to identify sources of introduction, kinds of damage caused, how they were introduced, types of control measures undertaken and experiences in carrying out the control measures.

Documents, reports, etc. were requested on work carried out in Vanuatu and elsewhere in the Pacific as well as lists of potentially threatening pests from other Pacific countries.

Replies were as follows:

1. Reports on coconut palm diseases have been lodged with USP library, Suva.

2. Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae

New country records in recent years:

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Pohnpei, 1999) pineapple pest, but polyphagous and can damage other plants. Fairly widespread in SW Pacific already; present in Vanuatu.

Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Samoa, 1999). Already in Hawaii; polyphagous, but particularly likes Hibiscus and Annona. Potentially very damaging in the absence of natural enemies – has caused major problems in the Caribbean and Central America in the last decade. Not recorded from Vanuatu.

Nipaecoccus nipae (Pohnpei, 1999; Samoa, 2000). Already in Hawaii [record was omitted from Williams & Watson (1988)]; a polyphagous Neotropical species with a preference for palms and fruit trees such as guava; potentially damaging in the absence of natural enemies. Not recorded from Vanuatu.

Paraputo leveri (Niue, 2000). Already recorded from Vanuatu. Always ant attended; control of the ants is likely to reduce mealybug populations.

Pseudococcus ?gilbertensis (Samoa, 2000) Previously only known from Kiribati. Not recorded from Vanuatu.

Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (Samoa, 2000) This species was called P elisae in Williams & Watson (1988). Not recorded from Vanuatu.

Reference: Williams DJ, Watson GW (1988) The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 2 The mealybugs (Pseudococcidae). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 260 pp.

3. See to find information on invasive species in Hawaii.

4. For Pathogens: Kohler et al. (1997) Diseases of cultivated crops in Pacific Island countries. Published by SPC. Make comparisons with Eric McKenzie’s check list: The fungi, bacteria and pathogenic algae of Vanuatu. Published by the Forum Secretariat in 1989 (and subsequent updates from Eric’s visits). This monograph has an introduction that will help, as it mentions many of the pathogens that are present in Vanuatu and important, and those in other countries that are a threat. Also, obtain a copy of the paper Eric McKenzie wrote with Pat Dale discussing the threat to Pacific Island countries of pests in Pacific-rim countries.

A virus survey was done in Vanuatu in the mid-1980s by Alan Brunt, but not published. SPC should be contacted for a copy. Mike Pearson, University of Auckland, would have details of viruses, particularly of vanilla, and Rob Harding, QUT, taro.

5. Information on the ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, is available at:

6. SPC library provided the following:

Plant Protection Services (PPS) – [email protected] or view their web site at; the Regional Management of Fruit Flies in the Pacific Project; a component of the PPS also has a website at

Copies of the following are free from the SPC: 1) Diseases of cultivated crops in Pacific Island countries by Kohler et al. (1997); and 2) Weeds of the Pacific by Swarbrick John T (1997). SPC Technical Paper 209.

The address for the SPC Suva Library, formerly named the Agriculture Library is [email protected]. The Library holds other materials which could help – including copies of the sources listed in the bibliographies of other literature. Not very much is electronic yet.

Below is a quick list of relevant material held by SPC. Some will be available in Vanuatu, ask at Quarantine or the Agriculture libraries.

1.McKenzie EHC (ca. 1991) The fungi, bacteria, and pathogenic algae of Vanuatu. Auckland, New Zealand: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Plant Diseases Division. 91 p.
2. Dale PS, McKenzie EHC (1991) Plant quarantine – a Pacific Island viewpoint. In: Kahn RP, editor. Plant protection and quarantine. Volume III : special topics. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; pp. 169-193.
3.Allwood A (2000) Fruit flies in Vanuatu. English and French editions Suva, Fiji: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Plant Protection Service. Pest advisory leaflet 27. 3 p. [On the Pacifly website]
4.Chazeau Jean, Bonnet De Larbogne L (1999) The invasion of the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata in Vanuatu: report to the Pacific Community. Consultancy report/Unpublished paper, EU/SPC. Pacific Plant Protection Service. Suva, Fiji: Secretariat Pacific Community. 13 p. [Electronic copy available]
5.Harley KLS (1993) SPC-German Biological Control Project sub-project, Lantana camara: report on surveys in Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji. Consultancy report/Unpublished paper. 35 p. [See also paper dated 1992. 35 p.]
6.Evans tr, Macfarlane DC, Mullen B (?1960) Weed identification and management in Vanuatu pastures. Vanuatu Pasture Improvement Project (VPIP). Port Vila, Vanuatu: Vanuatu Pasture Improvement Project through the Department of Agriculture, Livestock and Horticulture. [ca. 60 p.] (Technical bulletin no. 2).
8.Macfarlane DC, Shelton M (1986) Pastures in Vanuatu. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. 32 p. (ACIAR technical reports no. 2). [Free from ACIAR?]
9.Cock MJW (1984) Report on a consultancy to the Republic of Vanuatu to advise on biological control of weeds and pests, 20 November – 4 December 1983. Berkshire, UK: Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control. 33 p.
10.Terry PJ (1982) Appraisal of weed problems in the Republic of Vanuatu, 28 February – 14 March 1982. Oxford, England: Weed Research Organization. (Internal report no. 149).